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The Body Language

Page history last edited by Anaïs 9 years, 7 months ago



Body Language


     We chose to work on body language after we saw the video by Amy Cuddy on TED. We thought it could be interesting to know more about this subject, so here our findings: 




I. General aspects. 


                         1. Historical and definition.                         



   Public interest around body language has grown these past years. Sometimes, we can be in front of someone who asserts us something that we cannot believe because of his physical gestures and of his facial expressions that are betraying his lie. Indeed, knowing the meaning of behaviors and movements of the people around us seems to be useful to translate their feelings and their true intentions toward us[1]. What’s more, we have the ability to categorize and judge people we meet in our life through their attitudes and behaviors, which is called the body language. But, what really is body language and what does it do to us?



     Body language is a much studied subject since the mid-1900s. However, first studies on non-verbal behavior have already been identified in Antiquity, led in particular by Aristote, Hippocrate and Cicero, but also a bit more recently by Darwin in the late 1800s.                                   

     Recent studies have mainly been made by psychologists. They have put forward, among others, the fact that 50-80% of human communication has a non-verbal origin[2]. In addition, researchers found that body language can accompany and emphasize what someone is saying, but may also contradict, betray his real thoughts. It has been argued that verbal language and body language are related they have in fact the same cognitive process[3].



     There are several possible definitions of body language. For example, and to clarify this notion, we are going to give one, which is: ";body language - noun - the conscious and unconscious movements and postures by which attitudes and feelings are communicated [for example]: his intent was clearly expressed in his body language."; (Oxford English Dictionary). In general, we can speak of « non-verbal communication » or « non-voice communication ».



     Body language not only refers to the body movement, but includes various behaviors, such as facial expressions, body position, the proximity between self and other, physical contact between people, but also the movements of our eyes, etc.


     Knowing how to translate the body language in emotion, thought or feeling is important if we want to understand the intentions of others, but also how others perceive our own bodily signals. It can also teach us to understand and control ourselves, for example in a job interview situation. We will study this part a little bit more later, but we can already say that everyone is producing an unconscious interpretation of others' body language. However, this ability to interpret body language has been proved to be very complex. Hartland and Tosh said in 2001 that the human is capable of producing more than 700.000 different movements with his body, which makes a lot of possibilities of expression[4].




                         2. Body and facial language.




  • ·         Facial language



     Concerning facial language, they are 3 types of facial expressions: the macro expression, the micro expression and the subtle expression. They contribute to the way a message is perceived by others but they can also contradict words a person is saying during a discussion.



     Making micro expressions is totally unconscious; furthermore they are extremely brief because they disappear within fraction of a second. We make this type of facial expression every day and in a lot of situations for the six universal emotions (fear, anger, joy, surprise, disgust, sadness).



     Micro expressions are the expressions we try to hide from others or even suppress. During a conversation we can’t notice them but experts are able to identify those expressions instantaneously. Indeed micro expressions help experts during a police interrogation. Lie detectors mostly rely on micro expressions. In order to help people to recognize this type of facial expressions, Ekman created the METT (Micro Expressions Test Tool) which shows you micro expressions. This test is often used with children with autism as they have problems to discriminate them.Indeed they have problems to recognize and express emotions. This is why showing them videos can learn all the emotions. 


     Different facial muscles are activated when we are doing micro expressions. For instance, they can show up as eye movements during a conversation, which can say something about the sincerity of our words[5]. Indeed when you are talking with sombebody and can not look at him right in his eyes it means you are lying.




     On the other side are macro expressions. People make this type of facial expressions unconsciously, just like micro expressions. They are very quick, from ½ to 4 seconds. But again,like micro expressions, we make those every day in our daily interactions. As an example, the standard expression to anger isa frowning eyebrow, lips tension and an intense look. But those expressions are uncontrollable and we make them so quickly that they are unnoticed.


Subtle expressions are not associated with the duration but with the intensity of the emotion. They are expressed when a person is starting to feel an emotion:  a compression of the lips can be a sign of anger[6].




  • ·         Body language



We unconsciously express our feelings, moods and motivations with our body too. However it is better to rely on a cluster of signals instead of individual signs to indicate the meaning of feelings.



Men and women have different body languages. On the one hand they sit differently. We can easily see that men frequently sit with open legs, which is a confident dominant posture. On the other hand, for women it is not appropriate to sit like this, they have to indicate a sense of properness so they often sit with crossed legs. In fact, when we try to interpret body language, we have to take into account social trends and upbringings. Leg signals tend to be related with arms signals, for instance crossed legs and crossed arms generally indicate detachment or even disinterest.



During a conversation, when someone is sitting with knees directed towards the other person, it means that the person is interested and attentive to the conversation (and to the person who talks). When you cross your legs, putting your ankle above your knee, it suggests that you are stubborn and independent. Crossing legs this way and holding your ankle with your hand indicates an even more protective barrier because you are totally blocked.


     When you are feeling respect for somebody you are unconsciously adopting a specific position. Indeed you are standing upright, legs straight, together and parallel. Having legs intertwined, which is usually done by women, shows insecurity and it can be a sign of retreat and protection. Like knees, foot direction indicates interest. Women frequently play with their shoes, which indicate relaxation.



The distance between yourself and others is an expression of body language too; we keep a certain distance depending on how close you are with this person. Indeed, with family and close friend we unconsciously keep a distance of 45 to 120 cm, on the other hand with intimate people it is more like 15 to 45cm and with an unknown person and no interaction, the space between yourself and the other is minimum 3,6 m[7].


Other slightly movements we don’t pay attention consciously reveals our thoughts, such as pinching our nose which indicates a negative evaluation whereas touching or slightly rubbing it is a sign of doubt or lie. When people rest their heads in their hands, it conveys boredom. Moreover, crossed arms mean defensiveness and having hands on hips, aggression or readiness depending on context[8].



Culture is also a meaningful factor of body language. Indeed, in the United States and Canada, when you talk with someone intermittent eye contact indicates your attention and interest for the conversation. Nevertheless only a brief eye contact between two different genders is considered unsuitable in Muslim cultures. In Middle Eastern cultures, when two men or women talk together, an intense eye contact designates trust and sincerity[9].



          3. Evolution of body language. 




  • ·         What is the evolution of body language?



A discipline tackled this notion of body language: ethology. Indeed, ethology is not only studying the animal behavior but also the human behavior.


The psychologists Paul Ekman noted that certain body expressions and especially facial expressions are universal. This is particularly the case of the six primary emotions discovered by the same psychologist: happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise and anger.













According to this discipline, and especially according to Charles Darwin, the universality of emotional expressions is the result of evolution. This is demonstrated by the fact that some species of monkeys can realize some human behaviors. Those emotions already are observed in young babies and at all humans beings, that is why we can say they are hereditary. These behaviors were selected over time and are now in our genes, hereditary, according to Darwin. Indeed, these behaviors were selected because they are useful to humans: they allow the adaptation to the environment, in order to survive and reproduce. For example, the fear has a protective function against the danger: if we are afraid of the vacuum, we aren’t going to throw off a cliff[10] [11].



We will study in more detail the expression of emotions through body language later in the presentation.




  • ·         When do we become aware of our body language?



They are a few rules in our society that indicate what is acceptable and what is not. They are called social norms and indicate the expressive behaviors which are appropriate in society depending on which culture who you are from. All adults normally know how to control their expressions but children have some difficulties especially when they are young. In fact, display rules are learned in childhood.



“An observational study of children’s attempts to monitor their expressive behavior”.[12]



In 1984 Carolyn Saarni made an experiment with children. She wanted to know how children of different ages attempt to regulate their expressive behaviors, especially in a conflict situation. 45 children were accepted (because special cases were excluded like Children wearing eyeglasses for example). She settled up a conflict situation and children were filmed during the experience. She focused on their faces to catch their expressions with more details.



Children had to make an exercise, after which an experimenter gave them an appreciable reward. On the other hand, they had to make another exercise and this time the experimenter gave to them a no appreciate reward.



After the experience researchers found that children from 8 to 11 years old were disappointed but they didn’t wanted to make a fuss about it so even they were disappointed, they hid their feelings. This result was due to the display rules we learn, that we can’t express our feelings in all situations.



Others results were showed after the experimentation. Among other things, youngest children are four times more liable to do a fake smile after receive no appreciate reward. Moreover they found that girls (especially oldest) expressed more positives expressions after being disappointed by the no appreciate reward than boys (especially young boys).



Thanks to education we learn that some reactions or expressive behaviors cannot be shown in certain situations. We hide our feeling but sometimes it is complicated so micro and macro expression betray us.



This experience showed that young children aren’t capable of hiding their reaction and make a polite response. In fact we need cognitive capacities to have this behavior. But motivation is important too: boys are more motivated to regulate their behavior when they are vulnerable for example. However, even if very young children are not able to show fake feelings, the experiment showed that it is still precocious acquisition.



     II.     Emotion in body language:




          1. The interpretation of body and facial language:




In everyday life, many emotions and feelings express themselves through our body language. The body language is a good way to show to the others what it feels like.




All parts of our body from hair to toes emit small signals reflecting our emotions.


It’s one of the main utilities of body language. The positions of our eyes, or even our neck, micro-expressions of our brow or even our chin, or the appearance of our hair are elements which can betray our emotions, even unconsciously. When we are stressed, for example, our hair may seem dirty. But all other parts of our body can also lead to this.


     Indeed, the position of the torso must be checked if you don’t want to show what it feels like. When we have the torso slightly leaning forward we can show to people that we don’t very feel at ease.


     Arms are also very good ways to betray our feelings, such as those of boredom or anxiety. These two feelings are reflected by the fact of rocking the hands or the arms.


Legs also play an important role in the interpretation of the emotions. If we cross them when we are sitting, we can think or guess to people that we closed on ourselves, not very comfortable. If we beat down the ground with the feet we can betray boredom. The way we walk also reflects our level of assurance.




We thus see that it isn’t easy to control his body language to manage the emotions that we want to let it show or not. Many of our body language is unconscious, betraying our emotions and feelings[13].




To deepen this part, we are going to evoke, as examples, some emotions and their physical manifestation:




  • ·         The sadness :




When we are sad, it’s hard to hide it from others. Often our entourage noticed that something is wrong. It means that there are visible external signs of our sadness. Indeed, a sad person tends to have the lips which tremble, a soft voice, the body which is relaxed and soft, and to cry. This person also walks and breathes slower than normal circumstances. It also has a face which expresses this emotion: the blank stare, downcast eyes, the lowered corners of the mouth, a lowering of the upper eyelids and oblique eyebrows.


     The bodily expression of sadness allow us, among other functions, to draw others attention and empathy on us.


Furthermore, the tears produced when we cry also have this communication function. They also serve to attract others toward us, so that they understand our sadness and help us to feel better[14] [15] [16].








  • ·         The anger:




When we are angry we have a particular face: it can become red, we also have frowning, and the clenched lips. We also tend to tighten your fists or to lean slightly forward. When we cross arms, especially firmly, it may reflect a sign of anger. This refers to behaviors aimed the aggression.


When we are upset, our body automatically gets ready for a potential physical conflict.


These behaviors are also intended to intimidate the opponent to avoid the conflict. He may become afraid and thus calm to calm the situation. The body thus has the function of deliver dissuasive or aggressive messages to the opponent[17] [18].







  • ·         The joy :




When we feel joy or happiness we tend to have the muscles relaxed, to smile and to have an open attitude towards others. We also jump and laugh a lot when we are happy. In general, we are excited.










  • ·         The shame:




Often when we feel ashamed we have the face which blushes. What’s more, we don’t dare to look the others directly in the eyes and we tend to look down and grin. When we feel ashamed, we also often hide the face.










We showed in this part that the body language, and also facial language, has a function of communication through the emotions we feel[19] [20].






               2. The importance of body language in the interpretation of emotions




Many studies were led on the recognition of emotions thanks to facial expressions however the body would have a main importance in interpreting emotions and feelings.


     A study was made in 2012 by researchers of Princeton University, New York University and “Hebrew” University in Jerusalem.


These researchers showed to the participants various pictures of faces or body of people, or still both at the same time, expressing certain emotions. The aim of the participants was to recognize the emotion associated with each images.


The results of this study demonstrated that the face isn’t the most informative part of the body with regard to our emotions. Indeed, the participants have more easily able to distinguish a positive emotion of a negative emotion when the body of the person was present on the picture. That’s why we interpret the body language more easily than the facial language. Indeed the facial expressions would be more tend to be alike than the body language, which would cause misinterpretation[21] [22].



          III. The influence of body language.  



               1. How our body language does influence us?



When we think of body language, our first thoughts are that the body language of other people has an influence on us. But we aren’t just influenced by the body language of others; we are also highly defined by our own body language.



“Don’t fake it till you make it. Fake it till you become it”[23]



Our body language can configure our brain to feel different. For example, when you put a pen between your teeth forcing yourself to ‘smile’, after a moment you will feel happier than if you had the pen between your lips, making yourself to do a closed expression.[24]



To go further, and prove that our body language really can shape who we are, Amy Cuddy made an experiment. She asked people to do either a power pose or low power poses for two minutes. Then, she asked the participants how powerful they felt and gave them the opportunity to gamble. She also took a saliva sample before and after the pose. The results were quite astonishing:


-          86% of the people who took high power poses gambled versus 16% for those who took low power poses. This result shows that our body language can actually change our behaviors and make us feel more confident even in games of chance.


-      The saliva sample showed that the level of testosterone, which is the dominance hormone, increased by 20% and the level of cortisol, which is the stress hormone, decreased by 5% to people who took the high power poses. On the opposite, people who took low power poses had a level of testosterone that decreased from 10% and a level of cortisol which increased from 15%. Those results show that we can have an effect on our hormones only by changing the way we stand or sit.



 “Tiny tweaks can lead to big changes” (Amy Cuddy)



            In order to change our behaviors the key is to change our thoughts but to do it more effectively and quicker it is relevant to modify our behaviors first, as they have a powerful effect on our feelings and thoughts. So here are some little changes in your posture you can do and see how it affects you:


          - Sit up straight; it will be easier for you to conjure up positive thoughts and memories.


          - Move:like jumping up and down, do some pushups, skip or just stretched. As student, we often spend ours sitting on our desk, if we get up every thirty minutes and just wiggle it will reactivate our body and raise our energy levelup.


·                   - Hug yourself; it can reduce your physical pain. [25]





We did a small experiment by ourselves to see if our body language could really influence us. We decided to take high power poses for two hours when we were sitting, walking or just standing. 



     The next day, we took low power poses for two hours.


          Ad the end of the day, we wrote down everything that had made us feel happy or downcast in each condition:


Things that made us feel happy:


High power poses:


Low power poses:

I was feeling good in general.

I learned my class faster.

There was some music outside.

I was more concentrated

I breathed better

I adopted a fast pace of work

I better felt the good weather

I felt good about myself

I felt more sure of myself

I wanted to go to people


The sun was shining.


Things that made us feel downcast:


High power poses:

Low power poses:


Keeping a straight position for a long time is difficult.

I was tired.

It was boring to study.

I felt sad.

I had low back pain

I had no motivation

I felt people were looking at me

I felt uncomfortable

I felt vulnerable

I felt more isolated from other

I felt more timid



2. How can you influence others with our body language ?


     In a study conducted in 1967, Mehrabian and Wiener[26] showed that tone carried more meaning than the individual words themselves; and even though the results of this study were challenged, we thought it could be interesting to see how we can influence others with our body language.


The Mehrabian’s study showed that non-verbal communication had a very powerful impact in communication. It is in fact much easier to misunderstand the words than the facial and body expressions as they are universal. Think about it, how many times did you respond with a smile when someone was speaking to you, showing a happy posture, but you didn’t understood what they said?


The question is how can you take advantage of body language to make people do what you want?


          On a personnal level :


     When you meet new people or want to join a group, you need to make them appreciate you. In order to do that your body language is much more important than everything else. So, in order to appear nice here a few tips



Give people prolonged eye contact. People will think that you are trustworthy and not only interested in what they say. It also shows some self-confidence and people will naturally pay more attention to you and what you have to say.


Give them your best smile. We will communicate that you like people and that you are happy when you are around them. They are going to want to smile back at you which will instantly build rapport.


Appear to have a slightly higher energy level than the other person. People are not interested in being around someone who is bringing them down; they want to be pulled up. That is why you need to show them with your voice and body language that you have a slightly higher energy level; they will automatically feel more energized and positive while they are around you. But you need to be careful not to be to energetic and put people off or they will go away from you. [27]



     We wanted to do a little experiment on our own. We filmed two video, without any sound to avoid any bias. Both of the conditions were the same: two women were chatting together when a third one wants to take part to the conversation. In the first condition, she had a very open body language that reflected interest. In the second video, she was not so expressive. We showed either the first video or the second one to some people and asked them one simple question: Do you think that the two women would like to see the third one again?


When we showed them the first video, they were about 86% to answer yes whereas with the second video they were only 31%. They experiment was a great way to see on our own how body language has a major influence in our life.


For the two videos go see: http://youtu.be/OkmGyuRmBuE and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OC1BbTWVesI


          On a professionnal level:


Before a situation when you have to change someone else’s mind, you tend to think a lot about what you are going to say but should rather think of what your body language is saying because words only count for 7% of how people judge you.


They are two things to do to have an influence on others:


You need to be able to show up authoritative which mean you need to show people that you are the one who is in charge. From a body language point of view, it means that you will have to close off a little bit in order to privilege your acknowledge and experience over others’ people ones. You are becoming more directive and more concerned by controlling others’ people behavior them from taking direction of them.
This is called playing high. It will look like a very open and expansive relaxed body, when you are walking you will assume that other people will move on your path so you can take a maximum space and you will allow yourself to encroach on others space.
You also need to keep your head still while talking and keep eye contact a bit longer as usual when you are talking to them. On the other hand, when they are talking to you, you can look around, do other things… Playing high is a sort of dominance but you have to be careful because it can be damaging if you play high in the wrong situation as for example with people who have a higher rank than you. 


You need to be able to show up approachable which means that people feel that they can come to you to talk to you. It is kind of the opposite of showing up authoritative because it means lowering yourself a little bit to raise others up.
This is called play low and it looks like the opposite of playing high body language. It is a very close body language; people are making themselves as small as they can to minimize their footprint. People who are playing low are leaning forward, speaking in incomplete sentences; they tend to have fleeting and jerking movements, they talk with their hands near they face and have trouble to maintain eye contact. People who are people low also smile much more often to make others feel comfortable, it is the basis of building rapport.[28]




“Everything we need is already there. Everything we need is already in us, it is just a question of given yourself a permission to find it and use it.” Deborah Gruenfeld.


     IV. Some examples of the use of body language in our lives today.




          1. In politics. 



     While they are campaigning, politicians are more than aware that they need to pay attention to what their body reflects from them. The most important thing in emphasizing their talks is their hand gesture. In fact hands can contradict someone’s speech, for example when a candidate is pleading for peace and is making a closed fist movement at the same time. That’s why many politicians learn hand gestures:


- Palms-down motions is a sign of domination, the speaker wants to show that he is in control of the situation.


- Patting the air with a palms-down move is a way to reach someone personally and telling that everything is going to be alright.


- Raising the hand with fingers extended and close together show that the speaker is calm, cool and ready to handle any situation.[29]


Those are the three hands moves which are the most used in politics because they are neutral and comforting.



Peggy Hackney, who is an analyst from the NY university movement lab, decoded President Obama’s hand language during his latest campaign. He found out three movements that the President often used to support his words.




With the ‘Waving a ball’ movement, Obama is trying to pass along a belief that he wants the viewer to embrace, for example when he speaks about the deficit, he says that ‘they are real achievable plans that will lead to new jobs’.


The Cutting gesture is used to place emphasis on an action verb as for an example ‘our problems can be solved’.


Finally, the Pointer movement is the most used by the President mostly to back his ideas and saying that they are ‘ok’. For example, when he says ‘I cut taxes for those who needed’ or ‘some of the worst school in the country have made real gains in math and reading’.[30] 


2. Police interrogation.



Body language is a really important part in police interrogation. It can tell the investigators whether or not the suspect is telling the truth. They are of course some basics such as is the suspect sweating, is his leg shacking as a sign of nervousness? But they are also much more complex analysis that can bring a suspect down.


The first example is eye patterns which are used in neurolinguistic interviewing’s’ technique.




Vc: the subject is looking up and left, the movement is often done while constructing a visual image.


Vr: Up and right, while remembering something visual.


Ac: Sideways and left, while constructing a sound.


Ar: Sideways and right, while remembering a sound.


K: Down and left, while accessing emotions.


Ai: Down and right, while self-talking.[31]






The investigator can ask two types of questions, one set that requires the suspect to remember data and the other that requires using a cognitive process. First, the investigator will ask some ‘innocent’ questions to see how the suspect reacts, were he looks to be sure when he is remembering something and when he is constructing something. Once the investigator has his baseline, he can ask real questions and see if the suspect is really telling the truth by remembering what happened or thinking of an answer that could innocent him.[32]




Even if there are more techniques to incriminate a suspect with his body and facial language, this is probably the most used and efficient one.


3. Mentalism.




Mentalism is something many people are fascinated about but the question is, do mind readers really exists or is this just a trick? Mentalists are actually people who are professional body language readers and are using cold reading. It is a technique which takes cues from someone’s body language to convince the subject that the mentalist knows more about them than they really do. They often start with some basics to make people think they can actually read their mind, for example if the subject has calloused hands and a tone musculature, the mentalist will say that he is someone who has a physical job.



A mentalist always starts by asking very vague questions and rely on body language to infer something from them. For example, they will say they are seeing someone tall and the subject will be thinking about someone they know or once knew. Then, by the dilatation, which is associated with positive emotion, or the constriction, which is associated with negative ones, the mentalist will either say ‘It’s someone you really like and is close to you’ or ‘I feel like something bad happened’. [33]



Mentalism is really about paying attention to each and every detail someone is giving out. They don’t actually read minds; they read bodies that are showing someone’s thoughts.





We think that body language is a very interesting subject with many aspects we do not usually pay attention to. Thanks to  this wiki we learned a lot of things and we are now being much more carefull about signs we can see through others body language. We are also trying to improve our well being by trying to do much power poses or express our emotions the right way.




[1] http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Body_Language.htm

Article: Understanding Non-verbal Communication – This website created by a team, founded by James Manktelow, which provides tools to find a job – I visited this website the 5 February 2014


[2]  http://www.businessballs.com/body-language.htm



[3]  Article: Gestures offer insight – by Ipke Wachsmuth (CRL number 173)


[4] www.businessballs.com/body-language.htm


[5] http://www.nonverbal-world.com/2011/12/reading-body-language-micro-expressions.html

Mr. Sachchidanand Swami. Article published on December, 2011. I visited the website the 12 February 2014.


[6] http://www.humintell.com/macroexpressions-microexpressions-and-subtle-expressions/

It is a secondary resource but it is the leader in consultancy and training about behavior. Founded by Dr. David Matsumoto. Visited the 19th February 2014.


[7] http://www.businessballs.com/body-language.htm#body-language-signals-translation

by Alan Chapman 2009. I visited the website the 30th February 2014.


[8] http://listverse.com/2007/11/08/25-examples-of-body-language/

Article by Jamie Frater published on November, 2007. I read the article the 30th February 2014.


[9] http://www.samdiener.com/2009/10/body-language-in-different-cultures/

Edited by Sam Diener, on October, 2009. Visited the 29 February 2014.


[10] http://psychology.about.com/od/nonverbalcommunication/ss/understanding-body-language_2.htm

Article: Understanding body language – by Kendra Cherry (an educator and writer) – I visited this website the 4 March 2014.


[11] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279921/

Article : Darwin in the world of emotions – by John Black – June 2002 – I visited this website the 1st March 2014.


[12] http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1130020?uid=3738016&;uid=2&;uid=4&;sid=21103599710051

“An Observational Study of Children's Attempts to Monitor Their Expressive Behavior”. Research by Carolyn Saarny made on August, 1984. Accessible online since September, 2013. I learned the experience the 19th and 20th  March 2014.


[13]  http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201206/the-ultimate-guide-body-language 

Article: The ultimate guide to body language - by Susan Krauss Whitbourne – June 30, 2012 – I visited this website the 13 March 2014.     


[14] http://readingbodylanguagenow.com/bodylanguageofsadness/ 

Article: Body language and sadness - by Scott Sylvan Bell – April 18th, 2012 – I visited this website the 13 March 2014.


[15] http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/happiness-in-world/201203/the-benefit-sadness

Article: The benefit of sadness - by Alex Lickerman – March 4, 2012 – I visited this website the 13 March 2014.


[16] http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/apr/14/why-do-humans-cry-biology 

Article: Why do humans cry? A new reading of the old sob story - by Mark Honigsbaum – April 14, 2013 – I visited this website the 20 March 2014.


[17] http://changingminds.org/techniques/body/aggressive_body.htm 

Article: Aggressive body language - This article wrote by a consulting and publishing company, but it’s recommended for students in psychology among others – I visited this website the 21 March 2014.


[18] http://www.athealth.com/consumer/disorders/angerproblem.html 

January 6, 2012 – Article: Understanding Anger – The website created by a psychiatrist and serves to provide information on mental illness.


[19] http://changingminds.org/techniques/body/emotional_body.htm 

Article: Emotional Body Language – This article wrote by a consulting and publishing company, but it’s recommended for students in psychology among others – I visited this website the 21 March 2014.


[20] http://referenceforwriters.tumblr.com/post/63548542732/41-emotions-as-expressed-through-body-language  

Article: 41 Emotions as expressed through body language – by ReferenceforWriters which is a group giving advice for written (the leader is Alex) - October 9, 2013 – I visited this website the 21 March 2014.


[21]  http://healthland.time.com/2012/11/30/to-really-read-emotions-look-at-body-language-not-facial-expressions/   

Article: To really read emotions, look at body language, not facial expressions - by Laura Blue – November 30, 2012 – I visited this website the 20 March 2014.


[22] http://www.livescience.com/25119-body-language-reveals-emotions.html   

Article: Is your partner sad? Body language speaks volumes - by Tia Ghose – November 29, 2012 –I visited this website the 27 March 2014.


[23]  http://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are.html

Amy Cuddy speech on TED, filmed in June 2012. Visited the 29.01.14


[24] http://wexler.free.fr/library/files/strack%20%281988%29%20inhibiting%20and%20facilitating%20conditions%20of%20the%20human%20smile.%20a%20nonobtrusive%20test%20of%20the%20facial%20feedback%20hypothesis.pdf 

research by Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988). Visited the 15.02


[25]  http://www.sfgate.com/health/article/How-posture-influences-mood-energy-thoughts-4784543.php#photo-5119572

Erik Peper studies. Visited the 21.02.14


[26] http://changingminds.org/explanations/behaviors/body_language/mehrabian.htm

sum up of Mehrabian’s studies : Mehrabian, A., and Ferris, S.R. (1967), Inference of Attitudes from Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels and Mehrabian, A. and Wiener, M. (1967). Decoding of inconsistent communications. Visited the 10.02.14


[27] http://advancedlifeskills.com/blog/14-very-effective-communication-skills/


Article by Jonathan Wells, life coach.  Visited the 19.03.14


[28] http://leanin.org/education/power-influence/ talk by Deborah H. Gruenfeld, Professor of Leadership &; Organizational Behavior at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, Co-director of the Executive Program for Women Leaders. Visited the 21.03.14


[29] http://www.netplaces.com/body-language/the-language-of-hands/politicians-and-the-perfect-hand-positioning.htm


[30] http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/10/02/us/politics/what-romney-and-obamas-body-language-says-to-voters.html?_r=0

By XAQUIN G.V., ALAN McLEAN, ARCHIE TSE and SERGIO PEÇANHA; movement analysis by Peggy Hackney, an expert in Laban movement analysis, October 2012. Visited the 03.03


[31] http://www.mentalismskills.com/category/body-language/

website about mentalism. Visited the 24.02.14


[32] http://www.grayarea.com/police8.htm

Dylan Kurtz, veteran law enforcement officer and author of Beating the Police Interrogation. Visited the 05.03.14


[33] http://www.lybrary.com/the-thirtynine-steps-to-mentalism-a-10.html

Bob Cassidy, Professional stage mentalist. Visited the 24.02.14



Comments (1)

Simon said

at 7:10 pm on Mar 24, 2014

that's funny i saw this vid' first semester, G luck

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